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The Abortion Crisis
29 Years Later

Table of Contents
The Abortion Crisis
Human Development

   Genetically Distinct Human Being
   After Fertilization
Abortion and Physical Complications
   Adequate Training
   Abortion Related Deaths
   Child Birth Safer Than Abortion
   Abortion And Suicide  
   Abortion And Substance Abuse
   Abortion And Pain
   Uterine Perforation
   Cervical Lacerations
   Placenta Previa
   Labor Complication
   Handicapped Newborns
   Ectopic Pregnancy
   Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
   Endometriosis
   Breast Cancer And Abortion
   Child Abuse
   Cervical, Ovarian And Liver Cancer
   Immediate Complications
   Multiple Abortion And Increased Risk
   General Health Reduction
   Contributing Health Risk Factors and Increased Risk
   Teenagers' Increased Risk
Abortion And Psychological Disorders
   Denial
   Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD or PAS)
   Sexual Dysfunction
   Cigarette Smoking
   Drug and Alcohol Abuse
   Eating Disorders
   Chronic Relationship Problems And Divorce
   Multiple Abortions

THE ABORTION CRISIS

In a Rasmussen Research telephone interview conducted on January 24, 2000, 1000 adults were asked “Is it too easy to get an abortion in America today or is it too hard to get an abortion?”  Fifty percent said it was too easy, 22 percent said it was too hard and 28 percent were unsure.  In the same interview the adults were asked “Is abortion morally wrong most of the time?”  Fifty-five percent responded yes, 30 percent said no and 15 percent were unsure. (1)

Federal, state, and local laws regulating or restricting the practice of abortion were nullified in 1973 by the  United States Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade. (2)

It  was the view of the court that modern medical advances had made abortion relatively safe, and states no longer had any need to regulate abortion.  Thus it was conclude by the justices that preventing physicians from providing abortions as a “health” service to women was unconstitutional.  (3)

Tragically, January 22, 2002, marks the twenty-ninth year since the Supreme Court legalized abortion in the United Sates (U.S.).  And, the total number of children lost to abortion since the Roe v. Wade decision is more than 42 million. (4)  Annually, an abortion is performed on 2 out of every 100 women aged 15-44.  At least one previous abortion has been performed on 47 percent of them, and a previous birth has been experienced by 55 percent.  An estimated 43 percent of women will have at least one abortion by age 45. (5)

Done as a means of birth control are 95 percent of all abortions. (6)  Three percent are the result of the mother’s health problems, (7) one percent because of fetal abnormalities(8) and only one percent are performed because of rape or incest. (9)

Women on average give at least three reasons for choosing abortion. First, three-fourths say that having a baby would interfere with school, work or other responsibilities.  Second two-thirds say they cannot afford a child. Third, one-half say they are having problems with their husband or partner or do not want to be a single parent. (11) Of U.S. women obtaining abortions, 52 percent are younger than 25, 20 percent are obtained by teenagers and 32 percent of all abortions obtained are for women aged 20-24.  Compared to minority women, white women obtain 58 percent of all abortions.  However, this is well below that of minority women of which Hispanic women are about two times as likely as white woman to have an abortion and black women are more than three times as likely. (12)

1.  See http://www.publicagenda.org/issues/pcc_detail.cfm?issue_type=abortion&list=2 .

2.      To view visit: http://members.aol.com/abtrbng/410us113.htm   http://www.priestsforlife.org/government/supremecourt/7301roevwade.htm .

3.      United States Supreme Court, Roe v. Wade, U.S. Reports, October Term, 1972, 49, 163.

4.      The figure is based on numbers and estimates reported by the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI)1973-1996.  Extrapolating for the years 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000,  2001 using 1996 data is from the Abortion Surveillance, 1997, Center for  Disease Control, Surveillance Summaries, December 8, 2000, Vol. 49 No. SS11.  In the past  AGI has indicated that there is a 3-6 percent rate of underreporting about the  number of abortions.  In this case a possible three percent underreporting rate was  factored into the total estimated figure; Sources for statistics for 1973 through 1992: Stanley K. Henshow, et al., “Abortion Services in the United States, 1991 and 1992,” Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 3, (May/June 1994), p.101; 1994 Statistics reported in USA Today, August 17, 1996, p.A17, attributed to the Alan Guttmacher Institute.

5.      “Induced Abortion” (Facts In Brief), Alan Guttmacher Institute, Revised February 2000, see http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html  . 

6.  Source: Central Illinois Right To Life see http://www.cirtl.org/abfacts.htm.

7. Source: Central Illinois Right To Life see http://www.cirtl.org/abfacts.htm.

8.  Source: Central Illinois Right To Life see http://www.cirtl.org/abfacts.htm.

9. “Induced Abortion” (Facts In Brief), Alan Guttmacher Institute, Revised February     2000, see http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html  .

10. Source: Central Illinois Right To Life see http://www.cirtl.org/abfacts.htm .

11. “Induced Abortion” (Facts In Brief), Alan Guttmacher Institute, Revised February 2000, see http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html  ). Also see              http://www.publicagenda.org/issues/factfiles_detail.cfm?issue_type=abortion&list=17 .

12.     “Induced Abortion” (Facts In Brief), Alan Guttmacher Institute, Revised February 2000, see http://www.agi-usa.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html  .

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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Genetically Distinct Human Being

At conception, a genetically distinct human being is brought to life, a fact that is well established.  The hereditary characteristics of both the mother and father, each contributing 50 percent, derived from Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) the genetic blueprint of life is contained in a newly fertilized egg called a zygote.  A staggering amount of genetic information sufficient to control the growth and development of the individual for an entire lifetime is contained in the newly fertilized egg.    Information equivalent to a library of one thousand volumes, or six hundred thousand printed pages with five hundred words on a page are found in a single thread of DNA from a human cell.  At conception, the equivalent of fifty times the amount of information contained in the Encyclopedia Britannica is found in the genetic information stored in the new individual. (13)

When comparing the fertilized and unfertilized human ovum, there is an important qualitative difference.  Unless the sperm and egg participate in the fertilization process, both will die and individually neither has the capacity for independent life.  The zygote is its own entity, genetically distinct from both the mother and father, once fertilization has taken place.  All the required information for self-directed developed is possessed by the newly conceived individual.  And given time and nourishment, it will proceed to grow in the normal human fashion.  Often pro-choice advocates say that the unborn child is merely part of the mother’s body.  This is simply untrue.  The unborn child possesses separate circulatory, nervous, and endocrine systems as well as a genetically distinct  make-up from the time of conception.  The sperm and egg separately represent only the potential for a new human life prior to conception.  However, once fertilization has taken place, the newly conceived individual is best described as an actual life. 

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After Fertilization

First, the zygote divides into two cells after fertilization, then four, then eight, and so on at a rate of almost one division daily.  The mass of cells may divide into identical twins during this earliest stage of development although it is relatively uncommon, occurring in only one out of 300 births.  Such twinning may occur until the fourteenth day.  It is also possible for twins or triplets to be recombined into a single individual during these first several days.  Irreversible individuality may not be present during the earliest stages of prenatal development, for at least a small fraction of zygotes.

The new human life enters the uterus and implants itself in the uterine lining (often called blastocyst stage) after the first six or seven days of cell division which takes place in the Fallopian tube.  The uterine lining is penetrated by one pole of the growing sphere of cells, called the trophoblast and develops into the placenta and develops as the embryonic human being is the other pole.  An extension of the child’s body, not the mothers, is the placenta.  Hormones, which enter the mother’s bloodstream that prevent the onset of menstruation are produced by the part of developing blastocyst that becomes the placenta.  Essential for its survival is the hormonal signal sent to the mother’s body from the newly conceived life which prevents the new life from otherwise being sloughed away by the menstrual flow.  The newly conceived individual rather than the mother takes the initiative in effecting crucial physiological changes even at this early stage.  In the developmental process, far from being passive is the newly conceived human being.  The child’s hormonal system has an active influence on changes to the environment the mother provides for the unborn child. (14)

The name for the new human life is changed from zygote to embryo after fourteen days of development.  By 17 days blood cells are formed and as early as 18 days a rudimentary heart is formed. Starting as a simple tube, the embryonic heart exhibits at 24 days of irregular pulsations and demonstrates rhythmic contraction and expansion about one week later.

Also, starting at about the eighteenth day, is the development of the nervous system.  Completely formed are the foundations of the child’s brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs by the twenty-first day.  The nervous system is so well developed that it controls the movements of the child’s muscles six weeks after conception although the woman may not even be aware of the pregnancy.

Though in a rudimentary form, all the internal signs of the unborn child are present by the end of the sixth week.  Impulses, which coordinate the functions of the other bodily organs are being sent by the brain. At 42 days reflex responses are present and at 43 days brain waves have been noted.  Fully deployed and continuing to grow in size are the blood vessels leading from the heart.  Also, the kidneys are starting to function by extracting uric acid from the child’s blood.  Digestive juices are also being manufactured by the stomach. 

If for example, by the end of the seventh week the child’s mouth and nose would be tickled with a hair, his response would be to flex his neck.  Also, the ears by this time are formed and may exhibit the specific features of a family pattern.  At this time, the name is changed from embryo to fetus which is Latin for young one or offspring. (15)  Fully recognizable now are the fingers and toes.  At eight weeks, lines in the hands and fingerprints start to appear and remain a distinctive characteristic for the child’s entire life.  Local reflexes such as tongue retraction, squinting, and swallowing begin to appear between the ninth and tenth weeks.  The child, for example, my turn his head away and pucker up and frown if his forehead is touched.  The child has full use of his arms and can bend independently the wrist and elbow.  Also, the entire body is sensitive to touch and is also capable of spontaneous movement.  By the eleventh week thumb sucking has been observed, and clear details of the skeleton can be revealed by an X-ray examination.

The child by the twelfth week is regularly swallowing and can move his thumb in opposition to his finger.  The child, by the end of the twelfth week will have a complex brain structure, which will continue to develop with a length of three and one half inches.  The unborn child at this time “is a sentient moving being,” states Arnold Gessell.  He adds, “We need not pause to speculate as to the nature of his psychic attributes, but we may assert that the organization of his psychosomatic self is well under way.”(16)

The child, at this time is active and with more pronounced reflexes.  Also, graceful and fluid and no longer mechanical and irregular is muscular response.  Present prior to quickening when the mother first notices the child’s movements is this motion which generally occurs between weeks 12 and 16.  However, very little movement can be felt as late as 20 weeks by some women.

Between the twelfth and sixteenth weeks, the child’s growth is very rapid.  His weight has increased six-fold and has grown to eight or ten inches in height.   It is possibly to hear the child’s heartbeat with a simple stethoscope, as well as by the refined electrocardiogram (ECG) apparatus.  The child by the end of the fifth month will be about twelve inches long and weighs about one pound.  Also, a fringe of eyelashes starts to appear and fine baby hair has started to grow.  The mother can feel the child’s head, arms and legs as the skeleton hardens.  Customarily, a premature delivery rather than a spontaneous abortion occurs after the twentieth week.

The child weighs slightly more than two pounds and some definitions of viability are fixed by the twenty-eighth week.  However, this is only an approximation.  Ten percent of the children will survive that are born between 20 and 24 weeks indicates Dr. Andre Hellegers. (17)  The date of viability would be pushed back into the earliest stages of gestation by the development of an artificial placenta.  Premature babies that would have been considered nonviable only a few years ago are able to be saved as a result of modern medical techniques.

As a result of the progress made in prenatal medicine it has been made increasingly clear that the unborn child possesses a distinct individuality.  It has been noted by Dr. Arnold Gesell:

Our own repeated observation of a large group fetal infants…left us with no doubt that psychologically they were individuals.  Just as no two looked alike, so no two behaved precisely alike….These were genuine individual difference, already prophetic of the diversity which distinguishes the human family. (18)

Thus, a distinctly individualized human being with a characteristic pattern of behavior describes the unborn child.  Medical advances have also eliminated the artificial distinction between prenatal and postnatal human life.  Explaining this is Dr. H.M. Liley:

In assessing fetal health, the doctor now watches changes in maternal function very carefully, for he has learned that it is actually the mother who is a passive carrier, while the fetus is very largely in charge of the pregnancy. (19) 

Pregnancy involves the medical care of two patients not just one.  The unborn child in many ways controls the dynamics of the pregnancy and is just not a passive partner.  Resulting from this new perception of the unborn child is the development of a whole new medical specialty called perinatology, which cares for its patients from conception to about one year of postnatal existence.   

13.     R. Houwink, Data: Mirrors of Science (1970), pp. 104-90, cited by Bart T.  Heffernan, “The Early Biography of Everyman,” p.4.

14.     The active nature of the unborn child is detailed in Albert W. Liley, “The Foetus in Control of His Environment,” in Hilgers and Horan,eds., Abortion and Social Justice  (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1972), pp 27-36.

15.     In medicine, this Latin term is used to refer to the unborn child from about eight weeks until birth.  Many prefer to use the terminology “unborn child,” which more accurately communicates the real genetic and physiological continuity of prenatal and postnatal human life because fetus has tended to depersonalize the unborn in the abortion debate.

16.     Cited by Heffernan, “Early Biography of Everyman,” p.15.

17.  Ibid., p.17.

18.  Arnold Gesell, The Embryology of Behavior (1945), cited by Heffernan, “Early  Biography of Everyman,” pp. 17, 18.

19.  H.M. Liley, Modern Motherhood (1969), cited by Heffernan, “Early Biography of Everyman,” p. 18.

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ABORTION AND PHYSICAL COMPLICATIONS

 Adequate Training

Adequately trained physicians are a vital component in performing surgical abortions.  Thought to be partially dependent on operator experience and gestation is the success and complication of pregnancy termination. (20)   In terms of morality, for reason of conscience, some residents in obstetrics and gynecology training programs opt out of abortion training.   In the U.S. abortion remains one of the most common operations performed on adults, but abortion training is not offered at 30 percent of the obstetrics and gynecology training programs.  Since 1985 those offering routine training in abortion have declined from 23 percent to 12 percent. (21)

The physician performing the abortion is likely to be a stranger of whose skill and experience a women knows very little, (22) since most abortions are performed at abortion clinics rather than by a woman’s regular OB-GYN (23).  Complications can be brought on by such things as the carelessness of the abortionist, the retention of fetal and placental tissue or an inadequate gynecologic examination prior to the operation.  Generally, these types of complications subside, though not always and can usually be treated. (24).  However, for crucial post-operative examinations, few women ever return to abortion clinics. (25)

20.    Child TJ, Thomas J, Rees M, MacKenzie IZ. Morbidity of first trimester aspiration   termination and the seniority of the surgeon. Human Reproduction 2001 May; 16(5):875-8.

21.    Grimes DA. A 26- year old woman seeking an abortion. JAMA.1999;282:1169-1175) It is striking to see that a procedure so commonly done in medicine is so uncommonly taught.

22.  Pamela Zekman and Pamela Warrick, “Women take chances with ‘tryout doctors,” Chicago Sun Times, November 14, 1978, p.1.

23.  Staneley K. Henshaw and Jennifer Van Vort,” Abortion Services in The United States, 1991 and 1992, Family Planning Perspectives, Vol.26, No 3 (May/June 1994), p101.

24.    Stanislaw Z. Lienbrych, M.D., “Fertility Problems Following Aborted First   Pregnancy,” New Perspectives on Human Abortion, ed. Hilgers, Horan, and Mall,   (Fredick, MD: University Publications of America, 1981), pp. 128, 132.

25.    Diane Gianelli, “With RU-486, Will More Physicians Provide Abortions?” American Medical News, April 12, 1993, p. 3, 25, 27.

Across American pro-choice advocates will maintain that abortion is safe.  Yet often not mentioned in this discussion by these advocates is the fact that abortion does have numerous risks that can affect women both emotionally and physically.

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Abortion Related Deaths

Only hours after undergoing an abortion, Erica Richardson, a 16 year-old Maryland resident, bled to death from a punctured uterus on March 1, 1989.  Also, two other adult women, Gladys Estanislao and Debra Gray who were Maryland residents, died from abortion complications during the next five months. (26)   However, in 1989 there were no abortion-related deaths according to the official statistics issued by Maryland public health officials.  Furthermore for the entire decade of 1980 to 1989 Maryland only reported a single abortion-related death. (27)

In 1989, in Maryland there was actually a fourth maternal death that was abortion related.  Susanne Logan, in this case during her abortion, fell into a coma and woke up unable to talk and a quadriplegic four months later.  In 1992 three years later she died.   Susanne’s death was not counted in any of the official abortion morality statistics since her death was not an immediate result of her abortion. (28)

For 1989 in one small state that reported no abortion deaths, there were four deaths that occurred.  The Abortion Surveillance Unit of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for the entire country reported only 12 deaths for that same year.

An extensive review of death certificates for women of reproductive age in Los Angeles County was undertaken  in the late 1980’s by Kevin Sherlock, an investigative reporter who specializes in public document searches.  In Los Angeles County alone between 1970 and 1987, he was able to find 29 abortion-related deaths when examining autopsy reports while looking for indications of therapeutic misadventure.  During a one-year period, four of these deaths occurred but for the entire state of California, the CDC reported zero abortion-related deaths, and for the entire country it only reported 12 deaths.  Eventually Sherlock documented 30 to 40 percent more abortion-related deaths throughout the nation than have been reported in the official national statistics published by the CDC when he used a similar technique.   Unfortunately, CDC obstructed every  effort he made to examine their records, but he still accomplished this without their assistance.  Only a fraction of the deaths that are actually occurring as a direct result of abortion have been documented by Sherlock who admits and even insists the discrepancy is due to his limited resources and the tendency of abortionists and state health authorities to minimize or obscure the paper trail surrounding abortion-related deaths.(29)

26.    David C. Reardon, “The Cover-Up Why U.S. Abortion Mortality Statistics Are Meaningless,” The Post-Abortion Review, 8(2), April-June 2000, Elliot Institute; see  http://www.afterabortion.org/PAR/V8/n2/abortiondeaths.html .

27. Kevin Sherlock, Victims of Choice, (Akron, OH: Brennyman Books, 1996)134-135.

28.    James A. Miller, ‘“Safe and Legal’-Back in New York and Maryland,” HLI Reports, 11(2):8-9, February, 1993.

29.  Sherlock, Victims of Choice, 115-117.

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Child Birth Safer than Abortion

In the U.S. relying on inaccurate maternal death data, abortion advocates routinely claim  that compared to the risk of death from abortion, a woman’s risk of dying from childbirth is six, ten, or even twelve times higher. (30)

However, the statistics relied upon maternal mortality calculations have been distorted and that the broader claim that abortion is many times safer than childbirth completely ignores high rates of other physical and psychological complications associated with abortion has been the long contention of abortion critics. To support this premise, the risk of dying within a year after an abortion is several  time higher than the risk of dying after miscarriage or childbirth found a new unimpeachable study of pregnancy- associated death in Finland. (31)

30.    David C. Reardon, “Abortion Is Four Times Deadlier Than Childbirth. New Studies  Unmask High Maternal Death Rates From Abortion, The Post-Abortion Review, 8(2), April-June 2000, Elliot Institute; see  http://www.afterabortion.org/PAR/V8/n2/finland.html.

31.  Gissler, M., et.al., “Pregnancy-associated death in Finland 1987-1994-definition problems and benefits of record linkage,” Acta Obsetricia et Gynecolgica Scandinavica 76:  651-657 (1997).

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Abortion And Suicide

Clearly associated to a dramatic increase in suicide risk is abortion.  Interview-based studies have corroborated this statistical finding which demonstrated consistently that among women who have had an abortion extraordinarily high levels of suicide ideation (30-55 percent) and reports of suicide attempts (7-30 percent) (32)

A consequence of the procedure itself therefore may be the reason for the  increased risk of suicide after an induced abortion. (33) Intentionally or subconsciously, timed to coincide with the anniversary date of the abortion or the expected due date of the aborted child in many cases is the attempted or completed suicides. (34) For women with a prior history of psychological disturbances or suicidal tendencies studies suggest that the risk of suicide after an abortion may be higher. (35)

An Example…

Especially in rural communities, Chinese families traditionally placed a high value on large families.  However, China instituted its brutal one child policy after the death of Mao Tse-Tung, who also valued large families.  The widespread use of abortion that included forced abortion and infanticide, especially of female babies had been required by this population control effort encouraged by Western governments and family planning organizations.  Therefore it does not appear odd to see that the suicide rate in China among women is the highest in the world.  In fact, among young rural women in China 56 percent of all female suicides occur. (36)  Compared to men China is the only country where more women die from suicide.  The suicide rate is twice as high as that of Chinese men for women under 45.

Both post-abortion counselors and in the published literature have reported about post-abortive women often in a drunken state deliberately crashing their automobiles in an attempt to kill themselves. (37)

32.  David Reardon, “Phychological Reactions Reported After Abortion,” the Post-Abortion Review, 2(3):4-8, Fall 1994; Anne C. Speckhard, The Psychological      Aspects of Stress Following Abortion (Kansas City: Sheed & Ward, 1987);Vincent Rue,  ”Traumagenic Aspects of Elective Abortion: Preliminary Findings from an International Study” Healing Visions Conference, June 22, 1996.

33. Christopher L. Morgan, et.al., “Mental health may deteriorate as a direct effect of induced abortion,” letters section, BMJ 314:902, 22 March, 1997.

34. Carl Tischler, “Adolescent Suicide Attempts Following Elective Abortion,” Pediatrics 68(5):670, 1981.

35.    Esther R. Greenglass, “Therapeutic Abortion and Psychiatric Disturbance in Canadian Women,” Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 21(7): 453-460, 1976; Helen Houston And Lionel Jacobson, “Overdose and Termination of  Pregnancy: An Important Association?” British Journal of General Practice, 46:737- 738, 1996.

36.    Elizabeth Rosenthal, “Women Suicides Reveal China’s Bitter Roots: Nation Starts to Confront World’s Highest Rate,” The New York Times, January 24, 1999, p.1,8.

37.    Carl Tischler, “Adolescent Suicide Attempts Following Elective Abortion,” Pediatrics  68(5):670, 1981; E. Joanne Angelo, Psychiatric Sequela of Abortion: The Many Faces of Post-Abortion Grief,” Linacre Quarterly 59:69-80, May 1992.

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Abortion And Substance Abuse

Well documented aftereffects of abortion are heavier drinking and substance abuse.

38. D.C. Reardon and P.G. Ney, “Abortion and Subsequent Substances Abuse,” American Journal Drug Alcohol Abuse 26(1):61-75.

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Abortion And Pain

During the abortion procedure, 97 percent of the women report experiencing pain despite the use of local anesthesia, (39) which was described as “intense,” “severe,” or “very severe” by more than a third.(40).  The pain from abortion when compared to other pains has been rated as more painful than a bone fracture, about the same as cancer pain, though not as painful as an amputation indicate researchers. (41)

Compared to older adults, younger women tend to find abortion more painful reveal studies (42) and  patients typically found abortion more painful than was expected by their physicians or counselors. (43) The risk of cervical injury or uterine perforation significantly increases by the use of more powerful general anesthetics although they can reduce the pain. (44)

Bleeding, hemorrhage (45), laceration of the cervix(46), menstrual disturbance, (47), inflammation of the reproductive organs, (48), bladder or bowel perforation, (49) and serious infection (50) are common complications.

Later, even more harmful long-term physical complications may result from abortion.  The lining of the uterus for example can be damaged by an over zealous curretage that may result in permanent infertility. (51)  An increased risk of ectopic (tubal) (52) pregnancy is faced by women who have abortions with a more than double risk of future sterility, overall.(53).  The risk of these types of complications, along with risks of future miscarriage, increase with each subsequent abortion is perhaps the most important overall. (54)

39.  Philip G. Stubblefield, M.D., et al, “Pain of first-trimester abortion:  Its quantification and relations with other variables,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 133, No.5 (March 1, 1979), p.489.

40.    Stubblefield, et. al., cited in note 80, p.493.

41.    Eliane Bélanger, Ronald Melzak, and Pierre Lauzon, Pain of first-trimester abortion:  a study of psychosocial and medical predictors,” Pain, Vol. 36 (1989), pp. 343,345.

42.  Bélanger, et. al, cited above, p.345, and Stubblefield, et. al., cited in note 80, p.495.

43. See Tables VII, VIII, IX, X, and XII, in Stubblefield, et al, Cited in note 80, pp. 493-496.

44.    Kenneth F. Schulz, David A. Grimes, Willard Cates, Jr., “Measures to Prevent Cervical Injury During Suction Curettage Abortion,” The Lancet, May 28, 1983, p.1184.  Also, see Steven G. Kaali, M.D., et. al., “The frequency and management   of uterine perforations during first-trimester abortions,” American Journal of  Obstetrics and Gynecology, August  1989, p.408.

45. Schulz, et.al., cited in note 87, p.1182.

46. Stubblefield, cited in note 9, pp. 1023-1024, and S. Kaali, cited in note 87 pp. 406-408.

47. Stubblefield, cited in note 9, pp. 1023.

48. L.H. Roht, et. al. , “increased Reporting of Menstrual Symptoms Among Women Who Used Induced Abortion,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol.127 (1997), p.356.

49. Ibid.

50. David N. Danforth, Ph.D,M.D., ed, et.al., Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5th  ed. (Philadelphia: J.B. Lipincott, 1986), pp.217,257, 382-383, See also Jack Pritchard, et.al., Williams Obstetrics, 17th ed. (Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1985), p.484.

51. Danforth, cited above, p.887, and David H. Nichols, M.D., Gynecologic and Obstetric Surgery (St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book Inc., 1993), p.260, and Leon Speroff, Robert H. Glass, Nathan G. Kase, Clinical Gynecological Endocrinology and Infertility ( Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1983), pp.156-157.

52. A. Levin, et.al., “Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion, “ American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 72, No.3 (March 1982), pp.253-256.

53. Anastasia Tzonou, et. al., “Induced abortions, miscarriages, and tobacco smoking as risk factors for secondary infertility,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol.47 (1993), p. 36.

54. A. Levin, et.al., “Association of induced abortion with subsequent pregnancy loss,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 243, No.24 (June 27, 1980), pp. 2495-2496, 2498-2499.

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Uterine Perforation

Perforation of the uterus may be suffered by between 2 and 3 percent of all abortion patients but unless laparoscopic visualization is performed, most of these injuries will remain undiagnosed and untreated (55).  For women who have previously given birth and for those who received general anesthesia at the time of the abortion, the risk of uterine perforation is increased. (56)  In later pregnancies uterine damage may result and eventually may evolve into problems which require a hysterectomy which may result in a number of additional complications and injuries that include osteoporosis.

55. S. Kaali, et al., “The Frequency and Management of Uterine Perforations During First-Trimester Abortions,” American Journal Of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161: 406- 408, August 1989; M. White, “A Case-Control Study of Uterine Perforations documented  at Labaroscopy,” American Journal Of Obstetrics and Gynecology 129:623 (1977).

56. D. Grimes, et. al., “Prevention of uterine perforation During Curettage Abortion,” JAMA, 251: 2108-2111 (1984); D. Grimes, et. al.,” Local versus General Anesthesia: Which is Safer For Performing Suction Abortions?” American Journal Of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 135: 1030 (1979).

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Cervical Lacerations

In at least one percent of first trimester abortions face significant cervical lacerations requiring  sutures.  Also, long-term reproductive damage may result from lesser lacerations, or minor fracture, which would normally not be treated.  Subsequent cervical incompetence, premature delivery, and labor complications may result from latent post-abortion cervical damage.  For teenagers, for second trimester abortion, and when practitioners fail to use laminaria for dilation of the cervix, the risk of cervical damage is greater. (57)

57.    K. Schulz, et. al., “Measures to Prevent Cervical Injuries During Suction Curettage Abortion,” The Lancet, May 28, 1983, pp. 1182-1184; W. Cates, “The Risks Associated with Teenage Abortion,” New England Journal of Medicine, 309(11):612-624; R. Castadot, “Pregnancy Termination: Techniques, Risks, and Complications and Their Management,” Fertility and Sterility, 45 (1): 5-16 (1986).

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Placenta Previa

In later pregnancies the risk of placenta previa is a life-threatening condition for both the mother and her wanted pregnancy.  Increased by seven to 15 fold due to abortion, the risk of fetal malformation, perinatal death, and excessive bleeding during labor is increased by abnormal development of the placental due to uterine damage (58).

58.    Barret, et. al., “Induced Abortion: A Risk Factor for Placenta Previa.”  American Journal of Ob & Gyn. 141:7 (1981).

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Labor Complication

Compared to women who carry to term, women who had one, two, or more previous induced abortions are 1.89, 2.66, or 2.03 times, respectively, more likely to have a subsequent pre-term delivery.  The risk of delay delivery and the risk of premature delivery are increased by prior induced abortion.  The risk of neo-natal death and handicaps are increased by pre-term delivery.  Women are 1.89, 2.61, and 2.23 times as likely to have a post-term delivery (over 42 weeks) as one who had one, two, or more induced abortions, respectively. (59)

59.    Zhou, Weijin, et. al.  “Induced Abortion and Subsequent Pregnancy Duration,” Obstetrics And Gynecology 94(6):948-953 (December 1999).

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Handicapped Newborns

Cervical and uterine damage is associated with abortion which causes a risk of premature delivery in later pregnancies.  Among newborns the leading causes of handicap are these reproductive complications (60)

60.    Hogue, Cates and Tietze, “Impact of Vacuum Aspiration Abortion on Future Childbearing:  A Review,” Family Planning Perspectives (May-June 1983). Vol. 15, No. 3.

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Ectopic Pregnancy

An increased risk of subsequent risk of ectopic pregnancies is significantly related to abortion.  In turn, ectopic pregnancies are life threatening and may result in reduced fertility. (61)

61.    Daling, et.al.  “Ectopic Pregnancy in Relation to Previous Induced Abortion,” JAMA, 253 (7):1005-1008 (Feb. 15, 1985); Levin, et. al. “Ectopic Pregnancy and Prior Induced Abortion,” American Journal of Public Health (1982), Vol. 72.p253:C.S. Chung. “Induced Abortion and Ectopic Pregnancy in Subsequent Pregnancies,” American Journal of Epidemiology.  115(6):879-887 (1982); Parazzini F., Ferraroni M., Tozzi L., Ricci E., Mezzopane R., La Vecchia C., Induced abortions and risk of ectopic pregnancy, Human Reproduction, 1995 Jul;10(7):1841-4; Tharaux-Deneux C, Bouyer J, Job-Spira N., Coste J. Spira A., “Risk of ectopic pregnancy and previous induced abortion,” American Journal Of Public Health, 1998 Mar; 88 (3): 401-5.

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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

A potentially life threatening disease is PID which can result in an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy and fertility reduction.  Within four weeks of patients who at the time of abortion have a chlamydia infection, 23 percent will develop PID.  Twenty to 27 percent of patients seeking abortion have chlamydia infection found studies.  After a first trimester abortion within four weeks about  five percent of patients who were not infected by chlamydia develop PID.  Prior to an abortion, abortion providers should screen for and treat such infections. (62)

62.    T. Radberg, et. al.. “Chlamydia Trachomatis in Relation to Infections Following First Trimester Abortions.”  Acta Obstricia Gynoecological (Supp. 93), 54:478 (1980); L. Westergaard, “Significance of Cervical Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Post-abortal Pelvic Inflammatory Disease,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, 60(3):332-325, (1982); M. Chacko, et. al., “Chlamydia Trachomatosis Infection in Sexually Active Adolescents:  Prevalence and Risk Factors.” Pediatrics, 73(6), (1984):  M. Barbacci, et al.. “Post-Abortal Endometritis and Isolation of Chlamydia Trachomatis.” Obstetrics and Gynecology 68(5):668-690, (1986); S. Duthrie, et. al.. “Morbidity After Termination of Pregnancy in First-Trimester,” Genitourinary Medicine 63(3):182-187, (1987).

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Endometritis

For all women, but especially teenagers, endometritis is a  post-abortion risk.  Compared to women 20-29 years of age teenagers are 2.5 times more likely following an abortion to acquire endometritis. (63)

63.    Burkman, et.al.. “Morbidity Risk Among Young Adolescents Undergoing Elective Abortion” Contraception, 30:99-105 (1984); “Post-Abortal Endometritis and Isolation of Chlamydia Trachomatis,” Obstetrics and Gynecology 68(5):668-690, (1986).

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Breast Cancer And Abortion

After one abortion the risk of breast cancer almost doubles and with two or more abortions the risk rises even further (64) 

As a result of the high abortion rate and low number of children, British women are harboring a breast cancer time-bomb.  The number of cases of malignant breast cancer diagnosed annually will, by 2030, have risen from 30,000 to more than 50,000 indicates a paper published by the Royal Statistical Society. 

The chance of breast cancer increases by up to four times if a women has had an abortion before a child rather than the other way around suggests one study.(65)  During pregnancy cells in the breast differentiate and develop but  abortion severely disrupts this process.  The effect is less since the cells will already have fully developed if a woman has already given birth.

64.    H.L. Howe, et al., “Early Abortion and Breast Cancer Risk Among Women Under Age 40,” International Journal of Epidemiology 18(2):300-304 (1989); L.I. Remennick, “Induced Abortion as A Cancer Risk Factor:  A Review of Epidemiological Evidence,” Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, (1990); M.C. Pike, “Oral Contraceptive Use and Early Abortion as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Young Women,” British Journal of Cancer 43:72  (1981).

65.    “ British Breast Cancer Increase Blamed on Abortion, The Observer, February 25, 2001.

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Child Abuse

The rate of child abuse has increased dramatically in the past three decades experts agree.  The reported cases of child abuse increased 330 percent between 1976 and 1987, alone.  Experts agree that these figures reflect a real trend toward ever higher rate of abuse although a portion of this increase is the result of better reporting. (66)

Pro-choice advocates have claimed that abortions of unwanted children prevents child abuse but these figures clearly contradict that premise.  Between increased rates of abortion and increased rates of child abuse there is a clear statistical association.  Both an association as well as a causal connection between abortion and subsequent child abuse is supported by statistical and clinical research. (67)

66.    Theresa Karminski Burke and David C. Reardon, “Abortion Trauma and Child Abuse, The PostAbortion Review 6(1) Spring 1998, Elliot Institute, see http://www2.famvid.com/dave12/PAR/V6/n1/ChildAbuseReenactment.htm .

67.    Ney, P. Fung, T., Wickett, A.R., “relationship Between Induced Abortion and Child Abuse and  Neglect: Four Studies,” Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 8(1):43-63 Fall 1993; Benedict, M., White, R., and Cornely, P., “Maternal Perinatal Risks Factors and Child Abuse”  Child Abuse and Neglect 9:217-224 (1985); Lewis, E.  “Two Hidden Predisposing Factors in Child Abuse,” Child Abuse and Neglect 3:327-330 (1979); Ney, P.,”Relationship Between Abortion and Child Abuse,” Canadian J. Psychiatry 24: 610-620 (1979).

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Cervical, Ovarian And Liver Cancer

Compared to women free of abortions, women with one abortion face a 2.3 relative risk of cervical cancer.  A 4.92 relative risk is faced by women with two or more abortions.  Also associated to single and multiple abortions are similar elevated risks of ovarian and liver cancer.  Apparently associated with the unnatural disruption of the hormonal changes which accompany pregnancy and untreated cervical damage are these increased cancer rates for post-aborted women (68).

68.    M-G, Le, et al., “Oral Contraceptive Use and Breast or Cervical Cancer: Preliminary Results of a French Case-Control Study, Hormones and Sexual Factors in Human Cancer Etiology, ed. JP Wolff, et al., Excerpta Medica:  New York (1984) pp. 139-147; F. Parazzini, et al., “Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Invasive and Intraepithelial Cervical Neoplasia,” British Journal of Cancer, 59:805-809 (1989); H.L. Stewart, et.al., “Epidemiolgoy of Cancers of the Uterine Cervix and Corpus, Breast and Ovary in Israel and New York City,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 37(1):1-96; I. Fujimoto, et.al., “Epidemiologic Study of Carcinoma in Situ of the Cervix,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine 30(7):535 (July 1985); N.Weiss, J. of Epidemiology, 117(2):128-139 (1983); V. Beral, et. al., “Does Pregnancy Protect Against Ovarian Cancer,” The Lancet, May 20, 1978, pp. 1083-1087; C. LaVecchia, et.al., “Reproductive Factors and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Women,” International Journal of Cancer, 52:351, 1992.

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Immediate Complications

In women undergoing elective abortion, about 10 percent will suffer complications immediately of which twenty percent are considered life threatening.  Infection, excessive bleeding, embolism, ripping or perforation of the uterus, anesthesia complications, convulsion, hemorrhage, cervical injury and endotoxic shock are the nine most common major complications which can occur at the time of abortion.  Infection, bleeding, fever, second degree burns, chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, gastro-intestinal disturbances and Rh sensitization are the most common minor complications. (69)

69.    Frank, et.al., “Induced Abortion Operations and Their Early Sequelae.” Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners (April 1985), 35(73):175-180; Grimes and Cates.  “Abortion: Methods and Complications,” Human Reproduction, 2nd ed., 796-13; M.A. Freedman, “Comparison of complication rates in first trimester abortions performed by physician assistants and physicians,” American Journal of  Public Health 76(5):550-554 (1986).

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Multiple Abortion And Increased Risk

The studies previously cited in general reflect risk factors of women who undergo a single abortion.  On the other hand, a much greater risk of experiencing these complications is exhibited by women who have multiple abortions.  Since about 45 percent of all abortions are for repeat aborters, this is especially noteworthy.

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General Health Reduction

Pregnancy loss and particularly losses due to induced abortion, were significantly associated with an overall lower health found a survey of 1428 women researchers.  An even lower evaluation of present health was correlated with multiple abortions.  Abortion was found to have a  greater correlation to poor health although miscarriages were also detrimental to health.  Previous research supports these findings which reported that during the year following an abortion, women visited their family physicians 80 percent more for all reasons and 180 percent more for psychosocial reasons. (70)

A 1984 study that examined the amount of health care sought by women during a year before and a year after their induced abortions supported this finding.  On average, there was an 80 percent increase in the number of physician visits and a 180 percent increase in physician visits for psychosocial reasons after abortion found the researchers. (71)

70.    Ney, et.al., “The Effects of Pregnancy Loss on Women’s Health,” Soc. Sci. Med. 48(9):1193-1200, 1994; Badgley, Caron & Powell, Report of the Committee on the  Abortion Law, Supply and Services, Ottawa, 1997:319-321.

71.    D. Berkeley, P.L., Humphreys, and D. Davidson, “Demands Made on General Practice by Women Before and After an Abortion,” J.R. Coll. Gen. Pract. 34:310-315, 1984.

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Contributing Health Risk Factors and Increased Risk

Behavioral changes such as promiscuity, smoking, drug abuse, and eating disorders all contribute to increased risks of health problems significantly associated to abortion. Promiscuity and abortion, for example are each associated with increased rates of ectopic pregnancies and PID.  It is unclear to which contributes the most; however, if the promiscuity is itself a reaction to post-abortion trauma or loss of self esteem apportionment may be irrelevant.

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Teenagers' Increased Risk

Also at a much higher risk of suffering many abortion related complications are teenagers which account for about  20 percent of all abortions.  For long-term reproductive damage and immediate complications this is true.  (72)

72.    Wadhera, “Legal Abortion Among Teens, 1974-1978,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, 122:1386-1389, (June 1980).

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Abortion And Psychological Disorders

Researchers found that women who had in the previous year undergone an abortion were  treated for mental disorders 41 percent more often than postpartum women, and 25 percent more often for injuries or conditions resulting from violence in a study of government-funded medical programs in Canada. (73)

Compared to a case matched sample of women covered by Medicaid who had not had a state-funded abortion, women who had state-funded abortions had 62 percent more subsequent mental health claims (resulting in 43 percent higher costs) and 12 percent more claims for treatments related to accidents (resulting in 52 percent higher costs) according to the findings of a study of Medicaid payments in Virginia. (74)

73.    R.F. Badgley, D. F. Caron, M.G. Powell, Report of the Committee on the Abortion Law, Minister of Supply and Service, Ottawa, 1977:313-319.

74.    Jeff Nelson, “Data Request from Delegate Marshall,” Interagency Memorandum, Virginia Department of Medical Assistance Services, March 21, 1997.

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Denial

There may be a long period of denial prior to a woman seeking psychiatric care since many women who have had abortions use repression as a coping mechanism.  Psychosomatic illnesses and psychiatric or behavioral problems in other areas of a women’s life may be caused by these repressed feelings.  (75)

75.    Kent, et. al., “Bereavement in Post-Abortive Women: A Clinical Report,” World Journal Of Psychosynthesis (Autumn-Winter 1981), Vol.13, No.3-4.

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD or PAS)

A minimum of 19 percent of post-abortion women suffer from diagnosable post-traumatic stress disorder found a major ransom study.  Relative to their abortion experiences about 50 percent had many but not all, symptoms of PTSD, and demonstrated moderate to high stress levels and avoidance behavior 20 to 40 percent of these cases. (76)

76.    Catherine Barnard, The Long-Term Psychological Effects of Abortion, Portsmouth, N.H.: Institute for Pregnancy Loss, 1990.

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Sexual Dysfunction

Immediately after their abortion of  both short and long duration 30 to 50 percent of women report experiencing sexual dysfunctions.  Development of a promiscuous life-style, an aversion to sex and’/or males in general, increased pain, or loss of pleasure from intercourse may be one or more of the problems women have experienced. (77)

77.    Speckhard, Psycho-social Stress Following Abortion, Sheed and Ward, Kansas City: MO, 1987; and Beasly, et. al., “Predictive Factors in Emotional Response to Abortion: King’s Termination Study-IV,” Soc. Sci. and Med., 11:71-82 (1977).

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Cigarette Smoking

Associated with increased cigarette smoking is post-abortion stress.  Twice as likely to become heavy smokers and suffer the corresponding health risks are women who abort.  Also, more likely to continue smoking during subsequent wanted pregnancies with increased risk of neonatal death or congenital anomalies are post-abortion women (78)

78.    Obel, “Pregnancy Complications Following Legally induced Abortion: An Analysis of the Population with Special Reference to Prematurity,” Danish Medical Bulletin, 26: 192-199 (1979); Martin, “An Overview: Maternal Nicotine and Caffeine Consumption and Offspring Outcome, “ Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Tertology, 4 (4): 421-427 (1982).

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Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Significantly associated to subsequent drug abuse is abortion.  Drug abuse is associated with increased exposure to HIV/AIDS infection, assaultive behavior and congenital malformations. (79)

Among women a two fold increased risk of alcohol abuse is significantly associated with abortion. (80)  Violent behavior, divorce or separation, auto accidents, and job loss is linked to abortion followed by alcohol abuse. (81)

79.    Oro, et. al., “Perinatal Cocaine and Methamphetamine Exposure Maternal and Neo-Natal Correlates,” J. Pediatrics, 111:571-578 (1978); D.A. Frank, et. al, “Cocaine Use During Pregnancy Prevalence and Correlates,” Pediatrics, 82 (6): 888 (1988); H. Amaro, et.al., “Drug Use Among Adolescents Mothers: Profile of Risk,”  Pediatrics 84: 144-150 (1989).

80.  Klassen, “Sexual Experience and Drinking Among Women in a U.S. National Survey,” Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15(5):363-39; M. Plant, Women. Drinking and Pregnancy, Tavistock Pub, London (1985); Kuzma and Kissinger, “Patterns of Alcohol and Cigarette Use in Pregnancy,” Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Terology, 3:211 (1981).

81. Morrissey, et. al., “Stressful Life Events and Alcohol Problems Among Women Seen at a Detoxification Center,” Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39 (9):1159 (1978).

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Eating Disorders

Post-abortion stress is associated with eating disorders such as binge eating, bulimia, and anorexia nervosa for at least some women. (82)

82. Speckhard, Psycho-social  Stress Following Abortion, Sheed and Ward, Kansas City :Mo, 1987; J. Spaulding, et. al., “Psychoses Following Therapeutic Abortion, American Journal Of Psychiatry 125(3): 364 (1978; R.K. McAll, et.al.’ “Ritual Mourning in Anorexia Nervosa,” The Lancet, August 16, 1980, p.368.

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Chronic Relationship Problems And Divorce

Unforeseen problems in the relationship for most couples is caused by an abortion.  More likely to divorce or separate are post-abortion couples.  A greater difficulty forming lasting bonds with a male partner is developed by many post-abortion women.  Responsible for this may be abortion-related reactions such as sexual dysfunction, substance abuse, increased levels of depression, anxiety, and volatile anger, lowered self-esteem, and greater distrust of males.   In part since they are also more likely to become single parents, women who have more than one abortion are more likely to require public assistance (83)

83.  Shepard, et.al., “Contraceptive Practice and Repeat Induced Abortion: An Epidemiological Investigation,” J. Biosocial Science, 11:289-302 (1979; M. Bracken, “First and Repeated Abortions: A study of Decision-Making and Delay,”  J. Biosocial Science, 7:473-491 (1975); S. Hensha, “ The Characteristics and Prior Contraceptive Use of U.S. Abortion Patients,” Family Planning Perspectives, 20 (4):158-168 (1988); D. Sherman, et. al., “The Abortion Experience in Private Practice,” Women and Loss: Psychobiological Perspectives, ed. W.F. Finn et. al., (New York: Prager Publ. 1985), pp. 98-107; E.M. Belsey, et. al., “Predictive Factors in Emotional Response to Abortion: King’s Termination Study-IV,” Social Science and Medicine, 11:71-82 (1977); E. Freeman et. al., “Emotional Distress Patterns Among Women Having First or Repeated Abortions,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, 55 (5): 630-636 (1980); C. Berger, et. al., “Repeat Abortion: Is it a Problem?” Family Planning Perspectives 16 (2): 70-75 (1984).

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Multiple Abortions

In the future at increased risk of having additional abortions are women who have one abortion.  Compared to those with no prior abortion history, women with a prior abortion experience are four times more likely to abort a current pregnancy. (84)

84.  Joyce, “the Social and Economic Correlate of Pregnancy Resolution Among Adolescents in New York by Race and Ethnicity: A Multivariate Analysis,” American Journal of Public Health, 78 (6): 626-631 (1988); C Tietze, “Repeat Abortions-Why More?” Family Planning Perspectives 10(50:286-288, (1978).

Prior abortion due to lowered self esteem, increased sexual activity, and a conscious or unconscious desire for a replacement pregnancy is associated with this increased risk.  As a result of conflicted desire to become pregnant and have a child and continued pressure to abort, such as abandonment by the new male partner may cause subsequent abortions.  Also, reported are aspects of self-punishment through repeated abortion. (85)

85.    Leach, “The Repeat Abortion Patient, “ Family planning Perspectives, 9(1):37-39  (1977); S. Fischer, “Reflection on Repeated Abortions: The meanings and   motivations.” Journal of Social Work Practice 2(2): 70-87 1986; B. Howe, et.al.,  “Repeated Abortion, Blaming the Victims,” American Journal of Public Health, 69  (12):1242-1246, (1979).

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